By the end of this section, you will be able to:
- Define and list examples of bone markings
The surface features of bones vary considerably, depending on the function and location in the body. Table 7.2 describes the bone markings, which are illustrated in (Figure 7.2.1). There are three general classes of bone markings: (1) articulations, (2) projections, and (3) holes. As the name implies, an articulation is where two bone surfaces come together (articulus = “joint”). These surfaces tend to conform to one another, such as one being rounded and the other cupped, to facilitate the function of the articulation. A projection is an area of a bone that projects above the surface of the bone. These are the attachment points for tendons and ligaments. In general, their size and shape is an indication of the forces exerted through the attachment to the bone. A hole is an opening or groove in the bone that allows blood vessels and nerves to enter the bone. As with the other markings, their size and shape reflect the size of the vessels and nerves that penetrate the bone at these points.
|Bone Markings (Table 7.2)|
|Articulations||Where two bones meet||Knee joint|
|Head||Prominent rounded surface||Head of femur|
|Condyle||Rounded surface||Occipital condyles|
|Projections||Raised markings||Spinous process of the vertebrae|
|Process||Prominence feature||Transverse process of vertebra|
|Spine||Sharp process||Ischial spine|
|Tubercle||Small, rounded process||Tubercle of humerus|
|Tuberosity||Rough surface||Deltoid tuberosity|
|Line||Slight, elongated ridge||Temporal lines of the parietal bones|
|Holes||Holes and depressions||Foramen (holes through which blood vessels can pass through)|
|Fossa||Elongated basin||Mandibular fossa|
|Fovea||Small pit||Fovea capitis on the head of the femur|
|Sulcus||Groove||Sigmoid sulcus of the temporal bones|
|Canal||Passage in bone||Auditory canal|
|Fissure||Slit through bone||Auricular fissure|
|Foramen||Hole through bone||Foramen magnum in the occipital bone|
|Meatus||Opening into canal||External auditory meatus|
|Sinus||Air-filled space in bone||Nasal sinus|
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