Preface

Welcome to Microbiology, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.

About OpenStax

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Customization

Microbiology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content contributors.

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American Society of Microbiology (ASM) Partnership

Microbiology is produced through a collaborative publishing agreement between OpenStax and the American Society for Microbiology Press. The book has been developed to align to the curriculum guidelines of the American Society for Microbiology.

About ASM

The American Society for Microbiology is the largest single life science society, composed of over 47,000 scientists and health professionals. ASM’s mission is to promote and advance the microbial sciences.

ASM advances the microbial sciences through conferences, publications, certifications, and educational opportunities. It enhances laboratory capacity around the globe through training and resources and provides a network for scientists in academia, industry, and clinical settings. Additionally, ASM promotes a deeper understanding of the microbial sciences to diverse audiences and is committed to offering open-access materials through their new journals, American Academy of Microbiology reports, and textbooks.

About the Authors
Senior Contributing Authors

Nina Parker (Content Lead), Shenandoah University

Dr. Nina Parker received her BS and MS from the University of Michigan, and her PhD in Immunology from Ohio University. She joined Shenandoah University’s Department of Biology in 1995 and serves as Associate Professor, teaching general microbiology, medical microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology to biology majors and allied health students. Prior to her academic career, Dr. Parker was trained as a Medical Technologist and received ASCP certification, experiences that drive her ongoing passion for training health professionals and those preparing for clinical laboratory work. Her areas of specialization include infectious disease, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and medical microbiology. Dr. Parker is also deeply interested in the history of medicine and science, and pursues information about diseases often associated with regional epidemics in Virginia.

Mark Schneegurt (Lead Writer), Wichita State University

Dr. Mark A. Schneegurt is a Professor of Biological Sciences at Wichita State University and maintains joint appointments in Curriculum and Instruction and Biomedical Engineering. Dr. Schneegurt holds degrees from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Ph.D. from Brown University. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Eli Lilly and has taught and researched at Purdue University and the University of Notre Dame. His research focuses on applied and environmental microbiology, resulting in 70+ scientific publications and 150+ presentations.

Anh-Hue Thi Tu (Senior Reviewer), Georgia Southwestern State University

Dr. Anh-Hue Tu (born in Saigon, Vietnam) earned a BS in Chemistry from Baylor University and a PhD in Medical Sciences from Texas A & M Health Science Center. At the University of Alabama–Birmingham, she completed postdoctoral appointments in the areas of transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli and characterization of virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae and then became a research assistant professor working in the field of mycoplasmology. In 2004, Dr. Tu joined Georgia Southwestern State University where she currently serves as Professor, teaching various biology courses and overseeing undergraduate student research. Her areas of research interest include gene regulation, bacterial genetics, and molecular biology. Dr. Tu’s teaching philosophy is to instill in her students the love of science by using critical thinking. As a teacher, she believes it is important to take technical information and express it in a way that is understandable to any student.

Brian M. Forster, Saint Joseph’s University

Dr. Brian M. Forster received his BS in Biology from Binghamton University and his PhD in Microbiology from Cornell University. In 2011, he joined the faculty of Saint Joseph’s University. Dr. Forster is the laboratory coordinator for the natural science laboratory-based classes designed for students who are not science majors. He teaches courses in general biology, heredity and evolution, environmental science, and microbiology for students wishing to enter nursing or allied health programs. He has publications in the Journal of Bacteriology, the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education and Tested Studies for Laboratory Education (ABLE Proceedings).

Philip Lister, Central New Mexico Community College

Dr. Philip Lister earned his BS in Microbiology (1986) from Kansas State University and PhD in Medical Microbiology (1992) from Creighton University. He was a Professor of Medical Microbiology and Immunology at Creighton University (1994-2011), with appointments in the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy. He also served as Associate Director of the Center for Research in Anti-Infectives and Biotechnology. He has published research articles, reviews, and book chapters related to antimicrobial resistance and pharmacodynamics, and has served as an Editor for the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. He is currently serving as Chair of Biology and Biotechnology at Central New Mexico Community College.

Contributing Authors

Summer Allen, Brown University

Ann Auman, Pacific Lutheran University

Graciela Brelles-Mariño, Universidad Nacional de la Plata

Myriam Alhadeff Feldman, Lake Washington Institute of Technology

Paul Flowers, University of North Carolina–Pembroke

Clifton Franklund, Ferris State University

Ann Paterson, Williams Baptist University

George Pinchuk, Mississippi University for Women

Ben Rowley, University of Central Arkansas

Mark Sutherland, Hendrix College

Reviewers

Michael Angell, Eastern Michigan University

Roberto Anitori, Clark College

James Bader, Case Western Reserve University

Amy Beumer, College of William and Mary

Gilles Bolduc, Massasoit Community College

Susan Bornstein-Forst, Marian University

Nancy Boury, Iowa State University

Jennifer Brigati, Maryville College

Harold Bull, University of Saskatchewan

Evan Burkala, Oklahoma State University

Bernadette Connors, Dominican College

Richard J. Cristiano, Houston Community College–Northwest

AnnMarie DelliPizzi, Dominican College

Elisa M. LaBeau DiMenna, Central New Mexico Community College

Diane Dixon, Southeastern Oklahoma State University

Randy Durren, Longwood University

Elizabeth A. B. Emmert, Salisbury University

Karen Frederick, Marygrove College

Sharon Gusky, Northwestern Connecticut Community College

Deborah V. Harbour, College of Southern Nevada

Randall Harris, William Carey University

Diane Hartman, Baylor University

Angela Hartsock, University of Akron

Nazanin Zarabadi Hebel, Houston Community College

Heather Klenovich, Community College of Alleghany County

Kathleen Lavoie, Plattsburgh State University

Toby Mapes, Blue Ridge Community College

Barry Margulies, Towson University

Kevin M. McCabe, Columbia Gorge Community College

Karin A. Melkonian, Long Island University

Jennifer Metzler, Ball State University

Ellyn R. Mulcahy, Johnson County Community College

Jonas Okeagu, Fayetteville State University

Randall Kevin Pegg, Florida State College–Jacksonville

Judy Penn, Shoreline Community College

Lalitha Ramamoorthy, Marian University

Drew Rholl, North Park University

Hilda Rodriguez, Miami Dade College

Sean Rollins, Fitchburg State University

Sameera Sayeed, University of Pittsburgh

Pramila Sen, Houston Community College

Brian Róbert Shmaefsky, Kingwood College

Janie Sigmon, York Technical College

Denise Signorelli, College of Southern Nevada

Molly Smith, South Georgia State College–Waycross

Paula Steiert, Southwest Baptist University

Robert Sullivan, Fairfield University

Suzanne Wakim, Butte Community College

Anne Weston, Francis Crick Institute

Valencia L. Williams, West Coast University

James Wise, Chowan State University

Virginia Young, Mercer University

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