Welcome to Microbiology, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.
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American Society of Microbiology (ASM) Partnership
Microbiology is produced through a collaborative publishing agreement between OpenStax and the American Society for Microbiology Press. The book has been developed to align to the curriculum guidelines of the American Society for Microbiology.
The American Society for Microbiology is the largest single life science society, composed of over 47,000 scientists and health professionals. ASM’s mission is to promote and advance the microbial sciences.
ASM advances the microbial sciences through conferences, publications, certifications, and educational opportunities. It enhances laboratory capacity around the globe through training and resources and provides a network for scientists in academia, industry, and clinical settings. Additionally, ASM promotes a deeper understanding of the microbial sciences to diverse audiences and is committed to offering open-access materials through their new journals, American Academy of Microbiology reports, and textbooks.
Senior Contributing Authors
Nina Parker (Content Lead), Shenandoah University
Dr. Nina Parker received her BS and MS from the University of Michigan, and her PhD in Immunology from Ohio University. She joined Shenandoah University’s Department of Biology in 1995 and serves as Associate Professor, teaching general microbiology, medical microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology to biology majors and allied health students. Prior to her academic career, Dr. Parker was trained as a Medical Technologist and received ASCP certification, experiences that drive her ongoing passion for training health professionals and those preparing for clinical laboratory work. Her areas of specialization include infectious disease, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and medical microbiology. Dr. Parker is also deeply interested in the history of medicine and science, and pursues information about diseases often associated with regional epidemics in Virginia.
Mark Schneegurt (Lead Writer), Wichita State University
Dr. Mark A. Schneegurt is a Professor of Biological Sciences at Wichita State University and maintains joint appointments in Curriculum and Instruction and Biomedical Engineering. Dr. Schneegurt holds degrees from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Ph.D. from Brown University. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Eli Lilly and has taught and researched at Purdue University and the University of Notre Dame. His research focuses on applied and environmental microbiology, resulting in 70+ scientific publications and 150+ presentations.
Anh-Hue Thi Tu (Senior Reviewer), Georgia Southwestern State University
Dr. Anh-Hue Tu (born in Saigon, Vietnam) earned a BS in Chemistry from Baylor University and a PhD in Medical Sciences from Texas A & M Health Science Center. At the University of Alabama–Birmingham, she completed postdoctoral appointments in the areas of transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli and characterization of virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae and then became a research assistant professor working in the field of mycoplasmology. In 2004, Dr. Tu joined Georgia Southwestern State University where she currently serves as Professor, teaching various biology courses and overseeing undergraduate student research. Her areas of research interest include gene regulation, bacterial genetics, and molecular biology. Dr. Tu’s teaching philosophy is to instill in her students the love of science by using critical thinking. As a teacher, she believes it is important to take technical information and express it in a way that is understandable to any student.
Brian M. Forster, Saint Joseph’s University
Dr. Brian M. Forster received his BS in Biology from Binghamton University and his PhD in Microbiology from Cornell University. In 2011, he joined the faculty of Saint Joseph’s University. Dr. Forster is the laboratory coordinator for the natural science laboratory-based classes designed for students who are not science majors. He teaches courses in general biology, heredity and evolution, environmental science, and microbiology for students wishing to enter nursing or allied health programs. He has publications in the Journal of Bacteriology, the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education and Tested Studies for Laboratory Education (ABLE Proceedings).
Philip Lister, Central New Mexico Community College
Dr. Philip Lister earned his BS in Microbiology (1986) from Kansas State University and PhD in Medical Microbiology (1992) from Creighton University. He was a Professor of Medical Microbiology and Immunology at Creighton University (1994-2011), with appointments in the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy. He also served as Associate Director of the Center for Research in Anti-Infectives and Biotechnology. He has published research articles, reviews, and book chapters related to antimicrobial resistance and pharmacodynamics, and has served as an Editor for the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. He is currently serving as Chair of Biology and Biotechnology at Central New Mexico Community College.
Summer Allen, Brown University
Ann Auman, Pacific Lutheran University
Graciela Brelles-Mariño, Universidad Nacional de la Plata
Myriam Alhadeff Feldman, Lake Washington Institute of Technology
Paul Flowers, University of North Carolina–Pembroke
Clifton Franklund, Ferris State University
Ann Paterson, Williams Baptist University
George Pinchuk, Mississippi University for Women
Ben Rowley, University of Central Arkansas
Mark Sutherland, Hendrix College
Michael Angell, Eastern Michigan University
Roberto Anitori, Clark College
James Bader, Case Western Reserve University
Amy Beumer, College of William and Mary
Gilles Bolduc, Massasoit Community College
Susan Bornstein-Forst, Marian University
Nancy Boury, Iowa State University
Jennifer Brigati, Maryville College
Harold Bull, University of Saskatchewan
Evan Burkala, Oklahoma State University
Bernadette Connors, Dominican College
Richard J. Cristiano, Houston Community College–Northwest
AnnMarie DelliPizzi, Dominican College
Elisa M. LaBeau DiMenna, Central New Mexico Community College
Diane Dixon, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Randy Durren, Longwood University
Elizabeth A. B. Emmert, Salisbury University
Karen Frederick, Marygrove College
Sharon Gusky, Northwestern Connecticut Community College
Deborah V. Harbour, College of Southern Nevada
Randall Harris, William Carey University
Diane Hartman, Baylor University
Angela Hartsock, University of Akron
Nazanin Zarabadi Hebel, Houston Community College
Heather Klenovich, Community College of Alleghany County
Kathleen Lavoie, Plattsburgh State University
Toby Mapes, Blue Ridge Community College
Barry Margulies, Towson University
Kevin M. McCabe, Columbia Gorge Community College
Karin A. Melkonian, Long Island University
Jennifer Metzler, Ball State University
Ellyn R. Mulcahy, Johnson County Community College
Jonas Okeagu, Fayetteville State University
Randall Kevin Pegg, Florida State College–Jacksonville
Judy Penn, Shoreline Community College
Lalitha Ramamoorthy, Marian University
Drew Rholl, North Park University
Hilda Rodriguez, Miami Dade College
Sean Rollins, Fitchburg State University
Sameera Sayeed, University of Pittsburgh
Pramila Sen, Houston Community College
Brian Róbert Shmaefsky, Kingwood College
Janie Sigmon, York Technical College
Denise Signorelli, College of Southern Nevada
Molly Smith, South Georgia State College–Waycross
Paula Steiert, Southwest Baptist University
Robert Sullivan, Fairfield University
Suzanne Wakim, Butte Community College
Anne Weston, Francis Crick Institute
Valencia L. Williams, West Coast University
James Wise, Chowan State University
Virginia Young, Mercer University