6.1 Using Biochemistry to Identify Microorganisms
- Accurate identification of bacteria is essential in a clinical laboratory for diagnostic and management of epidemics, pandemics, and food poisoning caused by bacterial outbreaks.
- The phenotypic identification of microorganisms involves using observable traits, including profiles of structural components such as lipids, biosynthetic products such as sugars or amino acids, or storage compounds such as poly-β-hydroxybutyrate.
- An unknown microbe may be identified from the unique mass spectrum produced when it is analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF).
- Microbes can be identified by determining their lipid compositions, using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) analysis.
- Proteomic analysis, the study of all accumulated proteins of an organism; can also be used for bacterial identification.
- Glycoproteins in the plasma membrane or cell wall structures can bind to lectins or antibodies and can be used for identification.