Case List

A copy of the following case list, with embedded links for each chapter and case, is available to download as a document (https://beav.es/5Q7) for editing and distribution. The list is also available to download as a sheet (https://beav.es/5Q8) for easier reorganization and filtering.

Incorporation

First Attempt

Barron v. Baltimore (1833)

Second Attempt under the P&I Clause

Butchers’ Benevolent Association v. Crescent City Livestock Landing & Slaughterhouse Co. (1873)

The Door Opens under the Due Process Clause

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. v. City of Chicago (1897)

Two Track Incorporation

Hurtado v. California (1884)
Maxwell v. Dow (1900)
Gitlow v. NY (1925)
Palko v. Connecticut (1947)
Wolf v. Colorado (1949)

One Path Forward

Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Duncan v. Louisiana (1968)
McDonald v. Chicago (2010)
Timbs v. IN (2019)
Ramos v. Louisiana (2020)

Privileges and Immunities Redux

Saenz v. Roe (1999)

Table of Incorporation

Press Freedoms

Basics of the Freedom

Near v. Minnesota (1931)
New York Times v. United States (1971)

Libel and Defamation

New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964)
Gertz v. Robert-Welch Inc. (1974)
Hustler Magazine v. Falwell (1998)

Protection of the Press

Branzburg v. Hayes (1972)
Zurcher v. Stanford Daily (1978)

Press Access to Criminal Justice Process

Sheppard v. Maxwell (1966)
Nebraska Press Assn. v. Stuart (1976)
Richmond Newspapers v. Virginia (1980)
Houchins v. KQED (1978)

Right to Publish

Seattle Times v. Rhinehart (1984)
Smith v. Daily Mail Publishing Co (1979)

Print versus Cable, Broadcast and Internet

Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo (1974)
Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC (1969)
FCC v. Pacifica Foundation (1978)
Turner Broadcasting System, Inc v. FCC (1994)
United States et. al v. Playboy Entertainment Group, Inc. (2000)
Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union (1997)

Religious Freedoms

Establishment Clause

Everson v. Board of Education (1947)
Zorach v. Clauson (1952)
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Epperson v. Arkansas (1966)

The Lemon Test

Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002)

Establishment Clause in Schools

Stone v. Graham (1980)
Wallace v. Jaffree (1985)
Edwards v. Aguillard (1987)
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000)

Establishment Clause in the Public Square

Alleghany County v. Pittsburgh ACLU (1989)
McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky et al. (2005)
Van Orden v. Perry (2005)
American Legion v. American Humanist Assn. (2019)

Prayer at Government Meetings

Marsh v. Chambers (1983)
Town of Greece v. Galloway (2014)

Sunday Blue Laws

McGowan v. Maryland (1961)

Free Exercise Clause: Valid Secular Policy

Reynolds v. U.S. (1879)
Cantwell v. Connecticut (1940)
Braunfeld v. Brown (1961)

Free Exercise Clause: Applying Strict Scrutiny

Sherbert v. Verner (1963)
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)
Goldman v. Weinberger (1987)

Free Exercise Clause: The Smith Test

Oregon v. Smith (1990)
Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah (1993)

A New Era?

Burwell v. Hobby Lobby (2013)
Masterpiece Cakeshop v. CO (2018)
Tandon v. Newsom (2021)
Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue (2020)
Fulton v. Philadelphia (2021)
Kennedy v. Bremerton School District (2022)

Speech and Expression

Defining Danger and Speech

Schenck v. U.S. (1919)
Abrams v. United States (1919)
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Terminiello v. Chicago (1949)
Dennis v. U.S. (1951)
Feiner v. People of the State of New York (1951)
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)
Hess v. Indiana (1973)

Speech and Expression

Stromberg v. People of the State of California (1931)
Minersville School Dist. et al. v. Gobitis et al. (1940)
West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette (1943)
Giboney et al. v. Empire Storage & Ice Co. (1949)
United States v. O’Brien (1968)
Spence v. Washington (1974)
Neal R. Wooley etc., et al. v. George Maynard et ux. (1977)
William P. Clark, Secretary of the Interior, et al. v. Community for Creative Non-Violence et al. (1984)
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
United States v. Eichman (1990)
Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense, et al. v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights et al. (2006)

Types of Speech

Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942)
Cohen v. California (1971)
Republican Party of Minnesota v. White (2002)
United States v. Alvarez (2012)
Elonis v. United States (2015)

Hate Speech

R.A.V. v. St Paul (1992)
Wisconsin v. Mitchell (1993)
Virginia v. Black (2003)

Obscenity and Extreme Violence

Roth v. United States (1957)
Jacobellis v. Ohio (1964)
Miller v. California (1973)
New York v. Ferber (1982)
Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association (2011)

Speech and Association

Whitney v. California (1925)
NAACP v. Alabama (1958)
Hurley v. Irish GLB of Boston (1995)
BSA v. Dale (2000)

Time, Place and Manner

City Council v. Taxpayers for Vincent (1984)
Ward v. Rock Against Racism (1992)
Hill v. CO (2000)
Watchtower v. Stratton (2002)
Snyder v. Phelps (2011)
McCullen v. Coakley (2014)
Reed v. Town of Gilbert (2015)
Minnesota Voters Alliance v. Mansky (2018)

Government Speech

National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley (1998)
Pleasant Grove City v. Summum (2009)
Walker v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans (2015)
Matal v. Tam (2017)
Iancu v. Brunetti (2019)

Student Speech

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969)
Island Trees School District v. Pico (1982)
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser (1986)
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988)
Morse v. Frederick (2007)
Mahanoy Area School District v. B.L. (2021)

Speech in College

Healy v. James (1972)
Papish v. Board of Curators (1973)
Rosenberger v. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (1995)
Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System v. Southworth (2000)
Christian Legal Society Chapter of the University of California, Hastings College of the Law v. Martinez (2010)

Campaign Finance and Speech

Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
First Nat’l Bank of Boston v. Bellotti (1978)
Citizens Against Rent Control v. Berkeley (1981)
FEC v. Beaumont (2003)
Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
McCutcheon v. FEC (2010)

Privacy

Building a Right

Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)
Mass v. Jacobsen (1905)
Meyer v. Nebraska (1923)
Pierce v. Society of Sisters (1925)
Buck v. Bell (1927)
Skinner v. Oklahoma (1942)
Rochin v. California (1952)

The Right to Privacy

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972)
Carey v. Population Services International (1977)

Reproductive Rights: A Fundamental Right

Roe v. Wade (1972)
Planned Parenthood v. Danforth (1986)
Bellotti v. Baird (Bellotti II) (1977)
Akron v. Akron Health Center (1986)

The Undue Burden Standard

Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
Mazurek v. Armstrong (1997)
Whole Women’s Health v. Hellerstedt (2016)
June Medical Services v. Russo (2020)
Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization (2022)

The Right to Die

Washington v. Glucksberg (1997)

Marriage and Family

Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
U.S. v. Windsor (2013)
Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)
Pavan v. Smith (2017)

Second Amendment

Historical Cases

Presser v. Illinois (1886)
United States v. Miller (1934)
United States v. Cruikshank (1876)

The Debate Emerges

United States v. Emerson (2001)

A Standard Emerges

District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)
McDonald v. Chicago (2010)
Caetano v. Massachusetts (2016)
New York State Rifle & Pistol Association, Inc. et al. v. Bruen, Superintendent of New York State Police, et al. (2022)

Equal Protection: Race

From Separate but Equal to Desegregation

Strauder v. W. Va. (1880)
Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938)
Sweatt v. Painter (1950)
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950)
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1955)
Green v. County Sch. Bd. of New Kent County (1968)
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Bd. of Educ. (1971)
Keyes v. School Dist. No. 1 (1973)
Milliken v. Bradley (1974)
Pasadena City Bd. of Educ. v. Spangler (1976)
Freeman v. Pitts (1992)
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (2007)

How Courts Review Racial Discrimination

Hirabayashi v. United States (1943)
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
McLaughlin v. Florida (1964)
Loving v. Virginia (1967)
Palmore v. Sidoti (1984)
Washington v. Davis (1976)
Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Dev. Corp. (1977)

Defining State Action

Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)
Burton v. Wilmington Parking Authority (1961)
Reitman v. Mulkey (1967)
Moose Lodge v. Irvis (1972)
Hills v. Gautreaux (1976)

Educational Affirmative Action

Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
Regents of the Univ. of Calif. v. Bakke (1978)
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
Fisher v. Texas (II) (2016)
Schuette v. BAMN (2014)

Economic Affirmative Action

Fullilove v. Klutznick (1980)
Wygant v. Jackson Board of Ed. (1986)
City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co (1989)
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena (1995)

Equal Protection: Gender and Other Groups

Historical Treatment of Gender

Bradwell v. Illinois (1873)
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
Goesaert v. Cleary (1948)

“Setting the Standard”

Reed v. Reed (1971)
Frontiero v. Richardson (1973)
Kahn v. Shevin (1974)
Weinberger v. Wisenfeld (1975)
Stanton v. Stanton (1975)
Craig v. Boren (1976)

Applying the New Standard

Orr v. Orr (1979)
Administrator of Mass. v. Feeney (1979)
Roskter v. Goldberg (1981)
Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County (1981)
Sessions v. Morales-Santana (2017)
Vorchheimer v. School Dist. of Philadelphia (1977)
Miss. Univ. for Women v. Hogan (1982)
U.S. v. Virginia (1996)

Equal Protection beyond Race and Gender

Hernandez v. Texas (1954)
San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez (1973)
Plyler v. Doe (1985)
Clark v. Jeter (1988)
Massachusetts Board of Retirement v. Murgia (1976)
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center (1985)
Romer v. Evans (1996)

Voting Rights

Access to the Ballot

Minor v. Happersett (1876)
Guinn v. United States (1915)
Lane v. Wilson (1939)
Nixon v. Herndon (1927)
Nixon v. Condon (1932)
Grovey v. Townsend (1935)
U.S. v. Classic (1941)
Smith v. Allwright (1944)
Lassiter v. Northampton County Board of Elections (1959)
Louisiana v. United States (1965)
Carrington v. Rash (1965)
Harper v. Virginia Bd. of Elections (1966)
Kramer v. Union Free Sch. Dist. No. 15 (1969)
Richardson v. Ramirez (1974)
Hunter v. Underwood (1985)
Rice v. Cayetano (2000)
Crawford v. Marion County Election Board et al (2008)

Congressional Power to Protect Voting Rights

South Carolina v. Katzenbach (1966)
Shelby County v. Holder (2013)
Brnovich v. Democratic National Committee (2021)
Colegrove v. Green (1946)
Baker v. Carr (1962)
Wesberry v. Sanders (1964)
Reynolds v. Sims (1964)

Voting Districts or Redistricting and Race

Gomillion v. Lightfoot (1960)
Thornburgh v. Gingles (1986)
Shaw v. Reno (1993)
Miller v. Johnson (1995)
Bush v. Vera (1996)
Cooper v. Harris (2016)

Voting Districts and Partisan Gerrymandering

Rucho v. Common Cause (2019)

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Civil Rights and Liberties Copyright © 2023 by Rorie Spill Solberg is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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